according to the negentropiyny principle of information information expressing this order will be equal to reduction of entropy of system in comparison with possible size of the entropy corresponding to lack of orderliness and the most chaotic condition of systems.
At the same time, the example of the geometrid birch does not confirm possibility of evolution down at all, that is in the direction of transition to higher levels of hierarchical structure and the corresponding spontaneous complication of biological forms. On the contrary, available biologists the facts testify that the rules limiting possibilities of changes of specific and patrimonial signs and thus providing resistance to influences of environment were initially provided in the act of creation.
Many scientists (starting with K. Shannon were inclined to consider such loan as purely formal reception. L. Brillouin showed that between the amount of information calculated according to Shannon and physical entropy there is not a formal, but substantial communication.
At the same time it is necessary to consider that creation of similar devices became possible only thanks to reason of the person, to use elementary information properties of crystals for creation of difficult information systems.
The of properties of information systems which are carried out by modern science give all grounds to claim that all systems can be formed only lowered from the top hierarchical levels by rules, and these rules existed before systems in the form of the initial plan (idea of creation).
It was noted above that carried out at the lowermost level of the text (at the level of separate a beech the statistical analysis of distribution of probabilities of letters and the subsequent calculation of a of information and size of entropy are capable to regulate only the resulting orderliness of the text. The reasons of this are formed on inaccessible information entropy to the analysis the top hierarchical levels of the text and language.
Even when interspecific crossings are possible, there are individuals almost capable to bring forth offspring. So, for example, as a result of crossing of a she-ass and a stallion in rare instances it is possible to receive a hybrid individual (the hinny. Crossing of a mare with a donkey appears more productive, however thus almost fruitless are their descendants (mules).
Using the text as universal model, it is possible to those limits of variability in which self-organization and adaptation of biological systems can . Taking into account the revealed restrictions it is possible to reveal an inaccuracy of basic provisions otstaivayemy materialistic science of the concept of an origin and evolution of species.
The merit of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is that she managed to reveal mechanisms of the anti-entropy processes which are not contradicting the Second beginning of thermodynamics as reduction of entropy in the self-organizing system is always paid big for an absolute value with a of entropy of environment.
Process of involvement in a lexicon of new words has a number of restrictions. Adaptation of these words to the new language environment appears a necessary condition of assimilation of words. At inclusion of the foreign word in a lexicon of a modern language, the word it has to submit to the of coordination of words operating in this language (i.e. to rules of inducement, interface, etc.). Similar adaptation is similar to processes of training of live organisms in rules of behavior in Wednesday, unusual to them.
It means that probabilistic function of entropy cannot be used for strict definition of amount of information and entropy of texts at the level of words and therefore Shannon was compelled to use approximate methods of extrapolation of the results received at the level of syllables and separate letters.
However any of these theories and units of measure of value or sense offered by their authors was not fated to get the same degree of universality what is possessed by a measure which was entered into science by Shannon.